Principles of Chemistry

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Preface for Teachers

1. Student Audience and Preparedness

2. Our Emphasis on Mastery, Integration, and Kingdom

3. Recommendations for Teaching With This Text

4. Laboratory Work and Lab Reports

Preface for Students

Introduction: What is Chemistry All About?

I.1 A Few Major Themes

I.1.1 Chemistry Is All About Electrons

I.1.2 Chemistry Is All About Electrical Forces

Hmm… Interesting. Why water forms beads

I.1.3 Chemistry Is All About Minimizing Energy

I.1.4 Chemistry Is All About Whole Number Ratios of Atoms

I.1.5 Chemistry Is All About Modeling

I.2 Conclusion


Chapter 1: Measurements

1.1 Science and Measurements

1.1.1 No Measurements, No Science

1.1.2 Matter, Volume, and Mass

1.1.3 The US Customary System

1.1.4 The SI Unit System

1.1.5 Metric Prefixes

1.2 Converting Units of Measure

1.2.1 Basic Principles of Unit Conversion Factors

1.2.2 Tips for Converting Units of Measure

1.2.3 Converting Temperature Units

1.3 Accuracy and Precision

1.3.1 Distinguishing Between Accuracy and Precision

1.3.2 Significant Digits

1.4 Other Important Math Skills

1.4.1 Scientific Notation

1.4.2 Calculating Percent Difference


Chapter 2: Atoms and Substances

2.1 Atoms and Molecules

2.1.1 Atomic Facts

2.1.2 The History of Atomic Models

2.2 Types of Substances

2.2.1 Pure Substances: Elements and Compounds

2.2.2 Mixtures

Hmm… Interesting. Bownian motion

2.2.3 Physical and Chemical Properties

2.3 Isotopes and Atomic Masses

2.3.1 Isotopes

2.3.2 The Unifies Atomic Mass Unit

2.3.3 Atomic Masses

2.3 Density and Quantity of Substances

2.4.1 Density

2.4.2 The Mole and the Avogadro Constant

2.4.3 Molar Mass and Formula Mass

2.4.4 Gram Masses of Atoms and Molecules


Chapter 3: Atomic Structure

3.1 Atomic Spectra

3.1.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum

3.1.2 Energy in Atoms

Hmm… Interesting. Neon Signs and Photons

3.1.3 The Hydrogen Atom

3.2 The Bohr Model of the Atom

3.3 The Quantum Model of the Atom

3.3.1 Schrödinger and Pauli

3.3.2 Shells, Subshells, and Orbitals

3.3.3 The Aufbau Priciple, the Madelung Rule, and Hund’s Rule

3.4 Electron Configurations

3.4.1 Electron Configurations and Orbital Diagrams

3.4.2 Condensed Electron Configurations

3.5 Empirical Formulas

3.5.1 Percent Composition and Empirical Formulas

3.5.2 Determining a Molecular Formula from an Empirical Formula


Chapter 4: The Periodic Law

4.1 The Periodic Table of The Elements

4.2 Periodic Table Nomenclature

4.3 Periodic Physical Properties

4.3.1 Atomic Radius and Bonding Atomic Radius

4.3.2 Ionic Radius

4.4 Periodic Chemical properties

4.4.1 Core and Valence Electrons

4.4.2 Ionization Energy

4.4.3 Electron Affinity

4.4.4 Electronegativity

4.5 A Few Notes About Hydrogen

Hmm… Interesting. Hydrogen in space


Chapter 5: Chemical Bonding

5.1 Preliminaries

5.1.1 Chemical Possibilities

5.1.2 The Octet Rule

5.2 Ionic Bonding

5.2.1 Ionic Bonds and Crystals

5.2.2 Naming Ionic Compounds

5.2.3 Energy in Ionic Bonds

5.2.4 Hydrates

5.2.5 Intensive and Extensive Properties

5.2.6 Physical Properties of Ionically Bonded Substances

5.3 Covalent Bonding

5.3.1 Covalent Bonds and Molecules

5.3.2 Polyatomic Ions

5.3.3 Ionic Compounds With Polyatomic Ions

5.3.4 Polyatomic Ion Names

5.3.5 Naming Acids

5.3.6 Lewis Structures

5.3.7 Exceptions to The Octet Rule

5.3.8 Resonance Structures

5.3.9 Naming Binary Covalent Compounds

5.3.10 Energy in Covalent Bonds

5.3.11 Physical Properties of Covalently Bonded Substances

5.4 Electronegativity, Polarity, and Bond Character

5.4.1 Polarity and Dipoles

5.4.2 The Nature of The Bond

Hmm… Interesting. The molecular structure of glass and quartz


Chapter 6: Molecular Theory and Metallic Bonding

6.1 Molecular Structure

6.1.1 Covalent Bond Theory

6.1.2 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory

6.1.3 The Effect of Nonbonding Domains on Bond Angle

6.2 Metallic Bonding

6.2.1 Metallic Lattices

6.2.2 Physical Properties of Metals

6.3 Intermolecular Forces

6.3.1 Bonding Forces

6.3.2 Intermolecular Forces

6.3.3 Hydrogen Bonding

Hmm… Interesting. Tin pest

6.3.4 Van Der Waals Forces


Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry

7.1 Introduction to Chemical Equations

7.1.1 Fascinating Chemistry

7.1.2 The Law of Conservation of Mass in Chemical Reactions

7.1.3 Reaction Notation

7.1.4 Balancing Chemical Equations

7.1.5 Oxidation States

Hmm… Interesting. Why nitrates and nitros blow up

7.2 General Types of Chemical Reactions

7.2.1 Synthesis Reactions

7.2.2 Decomposition Reactions

7.2.3 The Activity Series of Metals

7.2.4 Single Replacement Reactions

7.2.5 Double Replacement Reactions

Hmm… Interesting. A story about aqua regia

7.2.6 Combustion Reactions

7.2.7 Acid-Base Reactions

7.2.8 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

7.3 Stoichiometry

7.3.1 Stoichiometric Calculations

7.3.2 Limiting Reactant

7.3.3 Theoretical Yield and Percent Yield


Chapter 8: Kinetic Theory and States of Matter

8.1 Temperature, Kinetic-Molecular Theory, and Pressure

8.1.1 Temperature and Molecular Energy

8.1.2 Velocity Distribution of Gases

8.1.3 The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases

8.1.4 Gas Pressure

8.2 States of Matter

8.2.1 The Four Basic States of Matter

Hmm… Interesting. How barometers work

8.2.2 Solids

8.2.3 Liquids

8.2.4 Gases

Hmm… Interesting. Gas diffusion

8.2.5 Plasmas

8.2.6 Phase Transitions and Phase Diagrams

8.2.7 Heat Capacity, Heat of Fusion, and Heat of Vaporization

8.2.8 Evaporation

8.2.9 Vapor Pressure


Chapter 9: The Gas Laws

9.1 Early Formulations of The Gas Laws

9.1.1 Boyle’s Law

9.1.3 Avogadro’s Law

9.2 The Ideal Gas Law

9.2.1 Standard Temperature and Pressure

9.2.2 The Ideal Gas Law

Hmm… Interesting. The gas laws as models

9.2.3 Using The Ideal Gas Law to Find Molar Mass and Density

9.3 The Law of Partial Pressures

9.3.1 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

9.3.2 Collecting A Gas Over Water

9.4 Stoichiometry of Gases and Effusion

9.4.1 Stoichiometry of Gases

9.4.2 Gas Diffusion and Effusion

Hmm… Interesting. Uranium enrichment


Chapter 10: Solution Chemistry

10.1 Dissolution

10.1.1 The Process of Dissolving

10.1.2 Enthalpy of Solution

10.1.3 Entropy and Free Energy

10.1.4 Electrolytes>

10.2 Solubility

10.2.1 Ionic Solids in Water

10.2.2 Ionic Solids in Nonpolar Solvents

10.2.3 Polar Liquids

10.2.4 Nonpolar Liquids

10.2.5 Solutions of Solids

10.2.6 Gases in Liquid Solutions

10.2.6 The Effect of Temperature on Solubility

10.3 Quantifying Solution Concentration

10.3.1 Molarity

Hmm… Interesting. How soap works

10.3.2 Molality

10.4 Compounds in Aqueous Solution

10.4.1 Ionic Equations and Precipitates

10.4.2 Net Ionic Equations and Spectator Ions

10.5 Colligative Properties of Solutions

10.5.1 Vapor Pressure Lowering

10.5.2 Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation


Chapter 11 Acids and Bases

11.1 Properties and Nomenclature of Acids and Bases


11.2 Acid-Base Theories

11.2.1 Arrhenius Acids and Bases

11.2.2 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

Hmm… Interesting. What is an alkali?

11.2.3 Lewis Acids and Bases

11.2.4 Strength of Acids and Bases

11.3 Aqueous Solutions and pH

11.3.1 The Self-ionization of Water

11.3.2 Calculating [H3O+] and [OH]

11.3.3 pH as a Measure of Ion Concentration and Acidity

11.3.4 pH Measurement, pH Indicators, and Titration

11.3.5 Titration Procedure

11.3.6 Determining [H3O+] or [OH] from Titration Data


Chapter 12: Redox Chemistry

12.1 Oxidation and Reduction

12.1.1 Introduction to Redox Reactions

12.1.2 Oxidation States

12.1.3 Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

12.2 Redox Reaction Equations

12.2.1 Redox Half-Reactions

12.2.2 Balancing Redox Equations

12.3 Electrochemistry

12.3.1 Copper and Zinc Redox

12.3.2 Electricity Instead of Heat

12.3.3 Electrochemical Cells

Hmm… Interesting. How are salt bridges made?

12.3.4 Electrode Potentials

12.3.5 Electrochemical Applications



Answers to Selected Exercises

Appendix A: Reference Data

Appendix B: Scientists to Know About

References and Citations

Image Credits




John D. Mays